Deployment Guide

This section contains detailed information to help you setup The Things Enterprise Stack on the AWS Marketplace.

AMI Architecture

AWS Deployment Architecture

The following image describes the architecture of the components that are deployed while using the default parameters.

AMI deployment Architecture


This section lists the preparatory steps necessary to successfully complete this guide.

Specialized Knowledge

In order to follow this guide to deploy The Things Enterprise Stack , it is recommended to be familiar with the following concepts

  • AWS EC2, AWS CloudFormation
  • Shell and command line usage
  • Basics of LoRaWAN devices and gateways


The following are necessary to complete this guide

  1. An account with AWS with access to the AWS Marketplace. If you don’t have one, one can be created using the Create an AWS account page.
  2. An RSA Public-Private Key pair
  3. Sufficient rights on your account to create IAM roles.
  4. A LoRaWAN compliant Gateway.
  5. A LoRaWAN compliant End Device.
  6. Access to a name server for DNS mapping.

Deployment using AWS Cloud Formation

Step 1: Prepare the Deployment

  1. Login to your AWS Marketplace and navigate to the product page for The Things Enterprise Stack for LoRaWAN.
  2. Choose the correct AWS Region in which to deploy your stack. Also choose the Software Pricing Tier that suits your needs.
  3. Make sure to read the terms of usage and other information available.
  4. If applicable, request a service limit increase for additional VPCs and/or Elastic IPs.
  5. Click Continue to Subscribe and accept the terms and conditions once they are found satisfactory.
  6. Now click Continue to Configuration to configure your deployment.

Step 2: Configure the Deployment

The Continue to Configuration button will redirect you to the AWS CloudFormation page where the CloudFormation template is pre-loaded. This template allows the user to customize the deployment. The following is a list of the supported parameters that are available to the user.

Basic Configuration

Parameter Description Default
EC2 Instance Name Name of the EC2 instance. the-things-enterprise-stack
Domain Domain name. You should be able to configure DNS for the domain. TLS certificates from Let’s Encrypt will automatically be requested. -
Network Title* The title of your deployment. The Things Enterprise Stack for LoRaWAN

* This is an optional field

Security Configuration

Parameter Description Default
Admin Username Name of the admin user admin
Admin Email Email address of the admin user [email protected]
Initial Admin Password Initial admin password. Please choose a strong password. It is recommended to change this password upon first login. -
Amazon RDS Database Username Username of the relational database postgres
Amazon RDS Database Password Password for the relational database. This password is used to access the Amazon RDS database. -
SSH Key Name of an existing EC2 KeyPair to enable SSH access to your instance. -
SendGrid API Key* API key for SendGrid to send emails. -

* This is an optional field

External Connectivity

Parameter Description
Restrict SSH Access to IP Range The source IP address range that can be used to connect via SSH to the EC2 instances. Use for global SSH access.
Restrict Service Access to IP Range The source IP address range that can be used to connect to the deployed services. Use for global access.

User Registration

All of the fields below are optional.

Parameter Description Default
Require Admin Approval If set to true, administrator approval is needed for creating new accounts. false
Require Email Validation If set to true, validation of contact information is necessary to create new accounts. false
Require User Invites If set to true, email invites are necessary to create new accounts. false
Minimum Length Minimum length for user passwords. 8
Minimum Number of Digits Minimum number of digits for user passwords. 1
Minimum Number of Special Characters Minimum number of special characters for user passwords. 0
Minimum Number of Uppercase Letters Minimum number of uppercase letters for user passwords. 1

Resource Settings

The fields in this section are for advanced users. A change to some of these parameters might incur additional costs.

Parameter Description Default
EC2 Instance Type EC2 Instance Type t3.small
Redis Backup Retention Period* The retention period for daily Redis backups (days). 7
Redis Instance Type The size of machine for the Redis instance. cache.t2.small
Enable Multi-AZ for Redis If true, replicas of Redis are created. If true, RedisNumCacheClusters property must be greater than 1. false
Number of Redis Multi-AZ Instances The number of replicas for this replication group. If RedisMultiAZSupport is true, this value must be greater than 1. Note that this multiplies the Amazon ElastiCache Redis instance costs. 1
Amazon RDS Database Name Name of the relational database. (Warning) A change to this field requires manual migration of the database. ttn_lorawan
Amazon RDS Instance Type The instance type for the Amazon RDS database. db.t3.small
Amazon RDS Backup Retention Period The retention period for daily Amazon RDS backups (days). (Warning) A change to this field requires manual migration of the database. 7
Amazon RDS Postgres Version PostgreSQL version for the Amazon RDS database. 11.4
Enable Multi-AZ for Amazon RDS If true, a failover instance is created in case the primary instance fails. Note that this doubles the Amazon RDS instance costs. false

LoRaWAN Network Server Settings

The following parameters are optional

Parameter Description Default
LoRaWAN JoinEUI Prefix Prefix for the LoRaWAN JoinEUIs that are handled by this network. 0000000000000000/0
LoRaWAN DevAddr Prefix Prefix for the LoRaWAN DevAddrs that are handled by this network. 00000000/7
LoRaWAN NetID The LoRaWAN NetID that is assigned through LoRa Alliance membership. This is required if your network needs interoperability (e.g. roaming, peering, join flow) with other networks. If you do not have a NetID, please use 000000 or 000001. 000000

AWS IoT settings

Parameter Description Default
AWS IoT Telemetry If set to true, publish all upstream messages to AWS IoT. true

Update From Existing Deployment

The following parameters are exclusively meant for updating an existing deployment.

Parameter Description
Amazon RDS Snapshot The ARN (Amazon Resource Name) of the Amazon RDS snapshot to restore the database from.
Amazon ElastiCache Redis Snapshot The name of the Redis snapshot to restore the database from.
S3 Profile Pictures Bucket Name The name of the S3 bucket for profile pictures.
S3 End Device Pictures Bucket Name The name of the S3 bucket for end device pictures.

Step 3: Start the Deployment

  1. Once the parameters of The Things Enterprise Stack are configured, click Next to configure options for the CloudFormation Stack. You may use the defaults in this page.
  2. Click Next review the deployment. Select the I acknowledge that AWS CloudFormation might create IAM resources. checkbox and click Create Stack option.
  3. If all the parameters were entered correctly, AWS CloudFormation triggers the creation of your CloudFormation stack. The stack is now in the CREATE_IN_PROGRESS state. On average, this process takes about 40 minutes.
  4. You can monitor the status of your deployment by navigating to CloudFormation > <your-stack-name> > Events.
  5. Once the required resources are successfully deployed, the state of the CloudFormation stack is updated to CREATE_COMPLETE.

Upon completion of these steps, please head over to the Post Deployment Configuration guide to configure your deployment.